Conflict in the niger delta united states institute of peace. International journal of business and social science vol. Specifically, it explores one of the government of nigerias gon responses to the marginalisation of. The issue of landownership has historically been a major cause of conflict and controversy in zimbabwe. This conflict has triggered an acute humanitarian and forced displacement crisis, with. Social justice as a concept may be applied to policies and actions taken by.
The increasing demand from the niger delta communities to achieve greater social, economic and political equality will assist to rebalance the asymmetry of. Devising a comprehensive early warning system on impending violence will require the integration of local networks, investment in effective communication methods, building the capacity of governments and ngos to respond to crises, and recruiting experts to design conflict analysis methods appropriate for the niger delta. It is clear that scin is part of niger delta conflict dynamics and that its social license to operate is fast eroding. Oil exploitation and conflict in the niger delta region of nigeria 27 composed of thirty main streets very straight and 120 feet wide, apart from an infinity of small intersecting streets. Pdf conflict resolution in nigeria the niger delta experience. The social significance of these recommendations may help prevent a return to militancy and violence and thus promote greater social, economic, and political stability in the region. The multinational and transnational companies of oil and.
Causes of conflicts in the niger delta region of nigeria. While each conflict has multiple social, economic, and political drivers and dimensions. Such reconciliation restores society to, at least, some. This brief explores regional inequality in nigeria, focussing specifically on the niger delta. An understanding of the deeper conflict drivers and related impact, allows. Causes of conflicts in the niger delta region of nigeria as expressed by the youth in delta state article pdf available in procedia social and behavioral sciences 5. Peace and conflict studies, security publish your bachelors or masters thesis, dissertation, term paper or essay. Analysis of conflict trends in the niger delta pind. Niger delta social and conflict analysis framing workshop world bank, washington dc. Causes of conflicts in the niger delta region of nigeria as. The current conflict in the niger delta first arose in the early 1990s over tensions between.
The main objective of the niger delta social and conflict analysis ndsca is to increase the banks understanding of the social and conflict issues influencing development in the niger delta. Conflict management in the niger delta a case study of the amnesty programme the niger delta area is the most fragile region in nigeria. Conflict, niger delta, poverty, social welfare, basic needs introduction nigeria. Many felt that the issue of governance, values, and ethics were missing factors in the niger delta. The deltas abundant natural wealth stands in stark contrast to its palpable underdevelopment.
For the purpose of this paper, however, analysis will be focused upon the niger delta region. Niger delta social and conflict analysis integrityadmin conflict, effect of oil on nigerias resources, effect of oil on the people, the essence of oil conflict, niger delta, oil 0 nigerias niger delta is endowed with vast reserves of oil and natural gas. It covers an area of 70,000 square kilometers, in addition to the 200 nautical miles which the united nations general assembly added in 1995. Since its inauguration, the nddc has focused on the development of social and. The paper examines the interfaces between the nigerian state, multinational oil companies, the international community and youth militias with the economy. This paper focuses on the extent of implementation of the reintegration phase in the niger delta regions postconflict usually called postamnesty period and its impact on peace, security, and development in the region.
Experiences of conflict there is an oil well in my community, bonny, in rivers state. It is typically considered to be located within nine coastal southern nigerian states, which include. An analysis over the niger delta conflict and the countrys media presentation of the conflict, authorsophia wennerbeck, year2016. The analysis of internal conflict management capacities available.
Many of such insurgents had escaped into the scattered dense forests of the northwest states. Republic of nigeria niger delta social and conflict analysis. Pdf civil society and conflict management in the niger. This article evaluates the nature of corporate social responsibility related oil conflict with emphasis on the key reasons for the conflict in the niger delta region that has remained impoverished despite the regions huge contributions to the nigerian economy for many decades. Conflict in the niger delta more than a local affair summary neither nigeria nor foreign donors are investing enough to end violent conflict in the niger delta. It focuses on women survivors of sexual violence in postconflict communities and the various ways they cope with trauma and stigma. Few regions in the world have been as unfortunate as nigerias oilrich niger delta. The following research paper will focus on the contemporary niger delta conflict in nigeria. Environmental conflict and internal migration in the niger.
The current conflict in the niger delta first arose in the early 1990s over tensions between foreign oil corporations and a number of the niger delta s minority ethnic groups who feel they are being exploited, particularly the ogoni and the ijaw. This paper from the african journal on conflict resolution recommends a collaborative problemsolving approach to conflict management in the region. Unrest in the niger delta has also frequently caused the world price of oil to spike. Dating from colonial history, the state has made systematic and sustained efforts to. An analytical evaluation of the cost of the conflict in nigerias niger. Case study of community expectations and the administrative systems, niger delta david ogula apollos university, huntington beach, ca, usa.
Regional inequality and the niger delta policy brief no 5. However, to large sections of the local oilbearing communities, the commodity is mainly a source of anxiety and misery. These people are in no way inferior to the dutch as regards cleanliness. March 20 279 oil exploration and poverty in the niger delta region of nigeria. Environmental conflict and the politics of oil in the oil. This has severely reduced government revenue, affecting the entire country. Environmental conflict management in the niger delta, nigeria by okechukwu ibeanu abstract. Civil society groups in the niger delta emphasized the importance of good governance as a key component of conflict prevention in the region. Pdf causes of conflicts in the niger delta region of. Assessing the social stabilization and conflict mitigating opportunities and constraints present in pinds aquaculture value chain project. It is clear that scin is part of niger delta conflict dynamics and that its social license to. Nigerias niger delta region is not only home to the greater part of africas largest. Edward azars theory and nigerdelta conflict custom phd. Introduction since 2002, the institute for peace and conflict resolution ipcr had periodically undertaken strategic conflict assessments scas of nigeria for the purpose of providing.
A fuller understanding of the complex social and economic situation is expected to guide the. The oil sector accounts for approximately 95 percent of nigerias export earnings and over 80 percent of federal government revenue, but for nearly two decades the delta has been mired in conflict and violence. Government conflict management strategies in the niger delta have been defective. The current conflict in the niger delta first arose in the early 1990s over tensions between foreign oil corporations and a number of the niger deltas minority ethnic groups who feel they are being exploited, particularly the ogoni and the ijaw. The economy of conflict in the oil rich niger delta. The politics of conflict over oil in the niger delta region. The world bank is undertaking a social and conflict analysis of the nigerian niger delta. As much as one million barrels worth of daily oil production has been shut in due to violence. Niger delta, oil wealth, ethnic militia, content analysis, corporate. Introduction times great difficulties, restiveness, danger, deng 1997. Few regions in the world have been as unfortunate as nigerias oilrich niger. The analysis of internal conflict management capacities available shows there is a significant need. It provides enormous wealth and means of patronage to the rentier state and its joint venture partners, the transnational oil companies.
Ebegbulem department of political science university of calabar, nigeria dickson ekpe department of political science. This study examines the economy of conflict in the resource conflicts in the niger delta region of nigeria. A critical analysis from a peace researcher perspective ba, ma chukwu ambrose thesis m. The niger delta conflict a conflict exists in a situation when facts, desires or fears pull or push participants against each other in divergence directions heitlier 2012. The presence of oil and gas in the region makes it the goose that lays the golden egg, thus making the region the center of economic and political activities in the country. Prepared for the world development report 2009 kate higgins summary. A social and conflict analysis for change published on feb 2, 2012 few regions in the world have been as unfortunate as nigerias oilrich. Niger delta communities have lost their basic human needs, health, access to food and clean water and the ability to work. Consolidated and zonal reports executive summary 1.
Thursday, april 5, 2007 background the world bank is undertaking a social and conflict analysis of the nigerian niger delta. These views and experiences form the basis of agitation for demand for resource ownership and control by the peoples of the niger delta. It is the identification, research and analysis of these conflict drivers that focuses sdn and her projects to encourage resolution to the systemic issues seen in the niger delta. Nigeria is a multiethnic society consisting of different ethic nationalities. As has been mentioned earlier in the paper, the niger delta region is a potpouri of ethnic nationalities. Ethnicconflict and its manifestations in the politics of. The study also explains the root causes of conflict and political violence in the niger delta. This conflict in the niger delta is driven by a powerful mixture of corruption, underdevelopment, poverty and violence. A nuanced analysis of this network of global, national and local interactions and their consequences is critical when looking for ways to tackle the conflict in the niger delta region. Nigerian state and the management of oil minority conflicts. Understanding the armed groups of the niger delta final. Poor communitycompany relations in the niger delta hadrawn ve attention to the practice of corporate social responsibility csr in. Introduction the social justice theoretical framework provides an ample platform to examine the. The niger delta crisis has been a major threat to both socioeconomic activities in the niger delta region of nigeria.
While nigerian officials opt to buy shortterm ceasefires, such as the 2009 amnesty process, other governments spend too little in money and manpower to grow local civil. Towards ending conflict and insecurity in the niger delta. The influx of people into the niger delta air pollution and health waste management and health impacts on culture, traditions and authority structures the history of environmental management in the niger delta conclusion chapter four. P4p qualitative research report on driversimpacts of. Therefore the focus of this study was to determine the cause of conflicts in the niger delta region of nigeria as expressed by the youth in delta state.
Niger delta social and conflict analysis integrity. How oil and water create a complex conflict in the niger. In spite of these abundant natural resources, the niger delta is marked by poverty, economic underdevelopment, inequality, and environmental degradation. Ethnic conflict and its manifestations in the politics of recognition in a multiethnic niger delta region olakunle michael folami1 abstract. According to the niger delta human development report, the prevailing situation not only explains the increasing waves of restiveness in the region, it also presages a grim future for the region and the country. Civil society is already having some success promoting accountability at the community level. Once there is a conflict it is important to explore and understand how. The niger delta is today one of the most fragile ecosystems and the most endangered delta in the world.
Oilrelated environmental externalities in the oilbearing areas the specific environmental effect of oil exploitation on the oilbearing areas is examined in this section in. There is an urgent need to explain why the pap was not able to lead to sustainable peace and security in the niger delta. A social and conflict analysis for change few regions in the world have been as unfortunate as nigerias oilrich niger delta. In the case of the niger delta conflict, ghana provides an appropriate location for negotiations. This oneday workshop brings together experts on the delta, members of the world banks. The paper concludes that political and economic factors are the root causes of conflict in the niger delta, with environmental and social factors as the proximate and trigger causes, respectively. Pdf securing development and peace in the niger delta. The report is not designed as a conflict analysis, but rather it is intended to update stakeholders on the annual patterns and trends in violence. Violence in nigerias oil rich rivers state in 2004.
This paper focuses on the extent of implementation of the reintegration phase in the niger delta regions post conflict usually called postamnesty period and its impact on peace, security, and development in the region. Niger, and cameroon in order to regroup, train, and recruit new members. The study will further investigate the influence of variables of interest, such as, gender, age, religion, ethnic background and educational qualification on causes of conflict in the niger delta region of nigeria as expressed by youths in delta state. Towards ending conflict and insecurity in the niger delta region. Africa, amnesty program, conflicts, crisis, education, niger delta, nigeria, peacebuilding, post conflict.
The niger delta region of nigeria has witnessed an unprecedented spate of violence related to the impacts of oil and gas production. Pdf few regions in the world have been as unfortunate as nigerias oilrich niger delta. Conflict over oil exploitation and exploration by the multinational oil companies has manifested in different forms in the niger delta such as intra and interethnic conflict. Strategies for peace in the niger delta united states. Identifying pathways to youth employment in the niger delta.
Oil exploitation and conflict in the nigerdelta region of. The niger delta, a sensitive ecosystem rich in biodiversity, has witnessed considerable violence as a result of the tense rel ationship among oil companies, the nigerian state, and oil. Edward azar, he defined it as prolongedviolent struggle by communal groups for such basic needs as security. Yet we the youth lack basic amenities and any source of livelihood. A fuller understanding of the complex social and economic situation is expected to guide the development of the institutions policy and programs in the delta region. The niger delta is the delta of the niger river sitting directly on the gulf of guinea on the atlantic ocean in nigeria. This article is based on some of the findings from my apnsupported research in postconflict oil producing communities of nigerias niger delta. The armed struggle, internecine conflict and insurgency in the niger delta, all of which have been subsumed under the general term. Oil exploration and poverty in the niger delta region of. The amnesty is now six years since it implementation however, this study seeks to capture the impact and challenges of the amnesty programme in post conflict niger delta region. The niger delta has a long history of violent conflicts over environmental.
The violent radicalization of the boko haram members and the resulting military operations have reportedly affected nearly fifteen million people since 2009. The analysis was derived from survey questionnaires, interviews, fgds sessions and participant observations. Niger delta oil minority the niger delta is the third largest in the world. Corporate social responsibility and sustainable development has the relationship between each other. Ethnic and political unrest has continued throughout the 1990s despite the conversion to democracy.
The economy of conflict in the oil rich niger delta region. Niger delta, oil minority, conflict, and conflict management. The niger delta in nigeria has suffered from more than 7000 oil spills since 1970. This conflict has cost the nigerian government dearly. The deltas abundant natural wealth stands in stark. Egunjobi based his analysis of the ogonishell crisis. Niger delta shows that pap has not been able to achieve sustainable peace or security in the niger delta. Grievances, motivations, and institutional resilience in northeast. P4p qualitative report on driversimpacts of conflict in the niger delta pind pb01pqrrdicjune 2012 3 figure 2. Analysis of communitydriven development in nigerias niger delta region iii mwangi s. The houses are close to one another, arranged in good order. Civil society and conflict management in the niger delta. Kimenyi is a senior fellow and director of the africa growth initiative agi at the brookings institution. Historical tensions and a proliferation of armed groups militant, criminal, and ethnosectarian contribute to changing conflict and security dynamics in the region.143 1339 1514 130 1006 1093 1296 700 1286 615 1141 140 1275 1030 849 1233 1121 1102 1412 360 627 846 1621 555 1548 335 425 322 601 751 1083 50 262 143 229 104